Environmental Toxicology 2024


Eco-toxicology, an offshoot of toxicology, is a multidisciplinary science that integrates toxicology and ecology by drawing knowledge and procedures from both fields. It analyses the effects of toxic chemicals or biological agents on living organisms at different levels of organization. Eco-toxicology classifies different contaminants, their characteristics, release and ecological fate, and predicts their effects so that timely action can be taken to prevent or minimize any detrimental effects.

Environmental Toxicology starts with the basics of toxicology, briefly touching on the sources of toxic compounds, classification of toxicants, and factors affecting toxicity, and then elaborates on heavy metal toxicity. The individual chapters on various heavy metals and radioactive metals discuss the sources and routes of exposure, aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and mechanisms of toxicity, toxicological effects, diagnosis, treatment, management, and ecological impact. The book covers the field in its greatest width and provides an insight into pesticide and radiation toxicity, and recent advances in eco-toxicology, with special focus on the removal of HMs and the latest bioremediation techniques.

This book serves as a reference work for advanced students pursuing degrees in environmental toxicology and across various disciplines, such as biomedical and environmental sciences, toxicology, eco-toxicology, pharmacology, public health, etc. and all interested in learning the concepts of eco-toxicology.



* A systematic overview of the key concepts of eco-toxicology, its relationship with other disciplines, and recent advances in the area

*Detailed classification of toxicants, types of toxicity, and mechanism of the action of toxicants

*An in-depth coverage of topics on the mechanism toxicity of HMs, in addition to exclusive sections on pesticide and radiation toxicity

*A fact file in each chapter, highlighting its key points

*Flow charts, tables, diagrams, and illustrations in easily understandable language
Table of contents :
Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
Author Biographies
List of Abbreviations
1 Introduction
Fact File
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Terminology
1.2 Historical Background
1.2.1 Benchmarks in the History of Toxicology
1.3 Sub-Disciplines of Toxicology
1.3.1 Ecotoxicology as a Sub-Discipline of Toxicology
1.4 Relationships With Other Disciplines
1.5 Scope of Toxicology
2 Basics of Eco-Toxicology
Fact File
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Sources of Toxic Compounds
2.2.1 Toxic Effects and Food Poisoning
2.3 Classification of Toxicants
2.4 Types of Toxicity
2.5 Factors Affecting Toxicity
2.5.1 Factors Linked With Elements
2.5.2 Factors Linked With Organisms
2.5.3 Miscellaneous Factors
2.6 Dose–Response Relationship
2.7 Environmental Persistence
2.7.1 Uptake, Disposition, and Transport Processes
2.8 Toxicity Testing
3 Heavy Metal Toxicity: An Overview
Fact File
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Sources of HMs
3.3 Basic Mechanism of Heavy Metal Contamination
3.4 Thermodynamics of HMs
3.4.1 Bio-Dilution
3.4.2 Biomagnification
3.4.3 Bioaccumulation
3.4.4 Bioconcentration
3.4.5 Transference of HMs From Soil to Plants
3.4.6 HMs in Biota and Food Chains
3.4.7 Health Effects of Heavy Metals
3.5 HM Toxicity
4 Heavy Metal Toxicity: Lead
Fact File
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Sources and Route of Exposure
4.3 Aetiology
4.4 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations
4.5 Mechanism of Lead Toxicity
4.6 Toxicological Effects of Lead
4.7 Diagnosis
4.8 Treatment and Management of Lead Poisoning
4.9 Impact of Lead On the Environment
5 Heavy Metal Toxicity: Arsenic
Fact File
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sources and Routes of Exposure
5.3 Aetiology
5.4 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations
5.5 Mechanism of Arsenic Toxicity
5.6 Toxicological Effects of Arsenic
5.7 Diagnosis
5.7.1 Treatment and Management of Arsenic Poisoning
5.8 Impact of Arsenic On the Environment
6 Heavy Metal Toxicity: Chromium
Fact File
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Sources and Routes of Exposure
6.3 Aetiology
6.4 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations
6.5 Mechanism of Chromium Toxicity
6.6 Toxicological Effects of Chromium
6.7 Diagnosis
6.8 Treatment and Management of Chromium Poisoning
6.9 Impact of Chromium On the Environment
7 Heavy Metal Toxicity: Mercury
Fact File
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Sources and Routes of Exposure
7.3 Aetiology
7.4 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations
7.5 Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity
7.6 Toxicological Effects of Mercury
7.7 Diagnosis
7.8 Treatment and Management of Mercury Poisoning
7.9 Impact of Mercury On the Environment
8 Heavy Metal Toxicity: Cadmium
Fact File
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Sources and Routes of Exposure
8.3 Aetiology
8.4 Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations
8.5 Mechanisms of Cadmium Toxicity
8.5.1 Mechanisms of Cd Toxicity at the Cellular Level
8.6 Diagnosis
8.7 Treatment and Management
8.8 Impact of Cadmium On the Environment
9 Radioactive Metals and Radiation Toxicity
Fact File
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Radioactive Elements
9.2.1 Classification of Radiation
9.2.2 Nuclear Stability
9.2.3 Radioactive Decay
9.2.4 Types of Radioactive Decay
9.3 Sources of Radioactive Metals
9.4 Routes of Exposure of Radioactive Metals
9.5 Aetiology
9.6 Nuclear Disasters in History
9.7 Pathophysiological and Clinical Manifestations
9.8 Mechanisms of Toxicity
9.8.1 Cell Sensitivity Toward Radiation
9.8.2 Biological Outcomes of Radiation
9.8.3 Chromosome Damage
9.8.4 Mechanisms of Cell Death
9.8.5 Impact of Radiation On Biological Molecules
9.8.6 Radiation Protection
9.9 Diagnosis
9.10 Treatment and Management of Radioactive Metal Poisoning
9.11 Toxicological Effects of Radioactive Metals On the Environment
10 Pesticide Toxicity
Fact File
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Classification
10.2.1 Based On Mode of Entry
10.2.2 Based On Pesticide Function and Pest Organism They Kill
10.2.3 Based On Chemistry
10.2.4 Based On Their Nature
10.2.5 Based On Chemical Composition
10.2.6 Based On Mode of Action
10.2.7 Based On Sources of Origin
10.2.8 Based On the Range of Targets They Kill
10.2.9 Based On Type of Pesticide Formulation
10.2.10 Based On Toxicity
10.3 Toxicity of Pesticides
10.3.1 Effects of Pesticide Toxicity
10.3.2 Measurement of Toxicity
10.3.3 Mechanisms of Action
10.3.4 Impact of Pesticides On Human Health
10.4 Impacts of Pesticides On the Environment
10.4.1 Impacts On Non-Target Organisms
10.5 Diagnosing and Treating Pesticide Poisoning
10.6 Managing Pesticides
11 Recent Advances in the Remediation of Heavy Metals
Fact File
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Types of Physico-Chemical Remediation Methods
11.2.1 Adsorption
11.2.2 Ultrafiltration Membrane Technology
11.2.3 Sediment Remediation Technologies
11.2.4 Soil Washing
11.2.5 Electro-Dialysis
11.2.6 Filtration
11.2.7 Flocculation
11.2.8 Flotation
11.2.9 Electro-Kinetic Remediation
11.2.10 Ball Milling
11.3 Chemical Precipitation
11.3.1 Hydroxide Precipitation
11.3.2 Sulphide Precipitation
11.4 Nanotechnology in the Removal of HMs
11.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Physico-Chemical Methods
12 Bioremediation of Heavy Metals
Fact File
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Microbes Used in Bioremediation
12.2.1 Factors Affecting Microbial Bioremediation
12.3 Bioremediation Techniques
12.3.1 Slurry-Phase Bioremediation Techniques
12.3.2 Biopile Bioremediation Techniques
12.3.3 Windrows Bioremediation Techniques
12.3.4 Land Farming Or Land Treatment
12.3.5 Bioreactors
12.3.6 Composting
12.4 In Situ Bioremediation Techniques
12.4.1 Intrinsic Bioremediation
12.4.2 Engineered in Situ Bioremediation
12.4.3 Bioventing
12.4.4 Bioslurping
12.4.5 Bio-Sparging
12.4.6 Bio-Stimulation
12.4.7 Bio-Augmentation
12.4.8 Natural Attenuation
12.4.9 Phytoremediation
12.4.10 Phytostabilization
12.4.11 Phytodegradation
12.4.12 Phyto-Volatilization
12.4.13 Phyto-Extraction
12.4.14 Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB)
12.5 Advantages and Disadvantages
12.6 Bioremediation Applications
13 Recent Advances in Eco-Toxicology
Fact File
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)
13.3 X-Ray Fluorescence
13.4 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
13.5 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES)
13.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
13.7 Green Initiatives for Environment Management
13.7.1 Ecological Restoration
13.7.2 Bio-Scrubbers and Bio-Filters
13.7.3 Biomarkers
13.7.4 Carbon Sequestration
13.7.5 Carbon Footprints
13.7.6 Carbon Credit and Tax