FOX Human Physiology 15th Edition 2020


Table of contents :
1 The Study of Body Function
1.1 Introduction to Physiology
Scientific Method
1.2 Homeostasis and Feedback Control
History of Physiology
Negative Feedback Loops
Positive Feedback
Neural and Endocrine Regulation
Feedback Control of Hormone Secretion
1.3 The Primary Tissues
Muscle Tissue
Nerve Tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Connective Tissue
1.4 Organs and Systems
An Example of an Organ: The Skin
Body-Fluid Compartments
Review Activities
2 Chemical Composition of the Body
2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Chemical Bonds
Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic Compounds
Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale
Organic Molecules
2.2 Carbohydrates and Lipids
2.3 Proteins
Structure of Proteins
Functions of Proteins
2.4 Nucleic Acids
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Ribonucleic Acid
Review Activities
3 Cell Structure and Genetic Control
3.1 Plasma Membrane and Associated Structures
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Cilia and Flagella
3.2 Cytoplasm and Its Organelles
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Golgi Complex
3.3 Cell Nucleus and Gene Expression
Genome and Proteome
RNA Synthesis
RNA Interference
3.4 Protein Synthesis and Secretion
Transfer RNA
Formation of a Polypeptide
Functions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Complex
Protein Degradation
3.5 Dna Synthesis and Cell Division
DNA Replication
The Cell Cycle
Epigenetic Inheritance
Review Activities
4 Enzymes and Energy
4.1 Enzymes as Catalysts
Mechanism of Enzyme Action
Naming of Enzymes
4.2 Control of Enzyme Activity
Effects of Temperature and pH
Cofactors and Coenzymes
Enzyme Activation
Substrate Concentration and Reversible Reactions
Metabolic Pathways
4.3 Bioenergetics
Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions
Coupled Reactions: ATP
Coupled Reactions: Oxidation-Reduction
Review Activities
5 Cell Respiration and Metabolism
5.1 Glycolysis and the Lactic Acid Pathway
Lactic Acid Pathway
5.2 Aerobic Respiration
Citric Acid Cycle
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Coupling of Electron Transport to ATP Production
ATP Balance Sheet
5.3 Interconversion of Glucose, Lactic Acid, and Glycogen
Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis
Cori Cycle
5.4 Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins
Lipid Metabolism
Amino Acid Metabolism
Uses of Different Energy Sources
Review Activities
6 Interactions Between Cells and the Extracellular Environment
6.1 Extracellular Environment
Body Fluids
Extracellular Matrix
Categories of Transport Across the Plasma Membrane
6.2 Diffusion and Osmosis
Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane
Rate of Diffusion
Regulation of Blood Osmolality
6.3 Carrier-Mediated Transport
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Bulk Transport
6.4 The Membrane Potential
Equilibrium Potentials
Resting Membrane Potential
6.5 Cell Signaling
Second Messengers
Review Activities
7 The Nervous System
7.1 Neurons and Supporting Cells
Classification of Neurons and Nerves
Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath
Functions of Astrocytes
7.2 Electrical Activity In Axons
Ion Gating in Axons
Action Potentials
Conduction of Nerve Impulses
7.3 The Synapse
Electrical Synapses: Gap Junctions
Chemical Synapses
7.4 Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter
Chemically Regulated Channels
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
Acetylcholine in the PNS
Acetylcholine in the CNS
7.5 Monoamines as Neurotransmitters
Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter
Dopamine as a Neurotransmitter
Norepinephrine as a Neurotransmitter
7.6 Other Neurotransmitters
Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters
Polypeptides as Neurotransmitters
Endocannabinoids as Neurotransmitters
Gases as Neurotransmitters
ATP and Adenosine as Neurotransmitters
7.7 Synaptic Integration
Synaptic Plasticity
Synaptic Inhibition
Review Activities
8 The Central Nervous System
8.1 Structural Organization of the Brain
8.2 Cerebrum
Cerebral Cortex
Basal Nuclei
Cerebral Lateralization
Limbic System and Emotion
Emotion and Memory
8.3 Diencephalon
Thalamus and Epithalamus
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
8.4 Midbrain and Hindbrain
Reticular Activating System in Sleep and Arousal
8.5 Spinal Cord Tracts
Ascending Tracts
Descending Tracts
8.6 Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves
Review Activities
9 The Autonomic Nervous System
9.1 Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors
Autonomic Neurons
Visceral Effector Organs
9.2 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Division
Parasympathetic Division
9.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenergic and Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission
Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation
Responses to Cholinergic Stimulation
Other Autonomic Neurotransmitters
Organs with Dual Innervation
Organs Without Dual Innervation
Control of the Autonomic Nervous System by Higher Brain Centers
Review Activities
10   Sensory Physiology
10.1 Characteristics of Sensory Receptors
Categories of Sensory Receptors
Law of Specific Nerve Energies
Generator (Receptor) Potential
10.2 Cutaneous Sensations
Neural Pathways for Somatesthetic Sensations
Receptive Fields and Sensory Acuity
Lateral Inhibition
10.3 Taste and Smell
10.4 Vestibular Apparatus and Equilibrium
Sensory Hair Cells of the Vestibular Apparatus
Utricle and Saccule
Semicircular Canals
10.5 The Ears and Hearing
Outer Ear
Middle Ear
Spiral Organ (Organ of Corti)
10.6 The Eyes and Vision
Visual Acuity
10.7 Retina
Effect of Light on the Rods
Electrical Activity of Retinal Cells
Cones and Color Vision
Visual Acuity and Sensitivity
Neural Pathways from the Retina
10.8 Neural Processing of Visual Information
Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields
Lateral Geniculate Nuclei
Cerebral Cortex
Review Activities
11   Endocrine Glands
11.1 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
Common Aspects of Neural and Endocrine Regulation
Chemical Classification of Hormones
Prohormones and Prehormones
Hormone Interactions
Effects of Hormone Concentrations on Tissue Response
11.2 Mechanisms of Hormone Action
Hormones That Bind to Nuclear Receptor Proteins
Hormones That Use Second Messengers
11.3 Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Hormones
Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior Pituitary
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary
Feedback Control of the Anterior Pituitary
Higher Brain Function and Pituitary Secretion
11.4 Adrenal Glands
Functions of the Adrenal Cortex
Functions of the Adrenal Medulla
Stress and the Adrenal Gland
11.5 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Production and Action of Thyroid Hormones
Parathyroid Glands
11.6 Pancreas and Other Endocrine Glands
Pancreatic Islets
Pineal Gland
Gastrointestinal Tract
Gonads and Placenta
11.7 Paracrine and Autocrine Regulation
Examples of Paracrine and Autocrine Regulation
Review Activities
12   Muscle
12.1 Skeletal Muscles
Structure of Skeletal Muscles
Motor End Plates and Motor Units
12.2 Mechanisms of Contraction
Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction
Regulation of Contraction
12.3 Contractions of Skeletal Muscles
Twitch, Summation, and Tetanus
Types of Muscle Contractions
Series-Elastic Component
Length-Tension Relationship
12.4 Energy Requirements of Skeletal Muscles
Metabolism of Skeletal Muscles
Slow- and Fast-Twitch Fibers
Muscle Fatigue
Adaptations of Muscles to Exercise Training
Muscle Damage and Repair
12.5 Neural Control of Skeletal Muscles
Muscle Spindle
Alpha and Gamma Motor Neurons
Coactivation of Alpha and Gamma Motor Neurons
Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Upper Motor Neuron Control of Skeletal Muscles
12.6 Cardiac and Smooth Muscles
Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Review Activities
13   Blood, Heart, and Circulation
13.1 Functions and Components of the Circulatory System
Functions of the Circulatory System
Major Components of the Circulatory System
13.2 Composition of the Blood
Blood Plasma
The Formed Elements of Blood
Red Blood Cell Antigens and Blood Typing
Blood Clotting
Dissolution of Clots
13.3 Structure of the Heart
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations
Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves
Heart Sounds
13.4 Cardiac Cycle
Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle
13.5 Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram
Electrical Activity of the Heart
The Electrocardiogram
13.6 Blood Vessels
13.7 Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Arrhythmias
Arrhythmias Detected by the Electrocardiograph
13.8 Lymphatic System
Review Activities
14   Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure
14.1 Cardiac Output
Regulation of Cardiac Rate
Regulation of Stroke Volume
Venous Return
14.2 Blood Volume
Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues
Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys
14.3 Vascular Resistance to Blood Flow
Physical Laws Describing Blood Flow
Extrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow
Paracrine Regulation of Blood Flow
Intrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow
14.4 Blood Flow to the Heart and Skeletal Muscles
Aerobic Requirements of the Heart
Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow
Regulation of Blood Flow Through Skeletal Muscles
Circulatory Changes During Exercise
14.5 Blood Flow to the Brain and Skin
Cerebral Circulation
Cutaneous Blood Flow
14.6 Blood Pressure
Baroreceptor Reflex
Atrial Stretch Reflexes
Measurement of Blood Pressure
Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure
14.7 Hypertension, Shock, and Congestive Heart Failure
Circulatory Shock
Congestive Heart Failure
Review Activities
15   The Immune System
15.1 Defense Mechanisms
Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity
Adaptive (Specific) Immunity
Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Organs
Local Inflammation
15.2 Functions of B Lymphocytes
The Complement System
15.3 Functions of T Lymphocytes
Cytotoxic, Helper, and Regulatory T Lymphocytes
Interactions Between Antigen-Presenting Cells and T Lymphocytes
15.4 Active and Passive Immunity
Active Immunity and the Clonal Selection Theory
Immunological Tolerance
Passive Immunity
15.5 Tumor Immunology
Innate Lymphoid Cells
Effects of Aging and Stress
15.6 Diseases Caused by the Immune System
Immune Complex Diseases
Review Activities
16   Respiratory Physiology
16.1 The Respiratory System
Structure of the Respiratory System
Thoracic Cavity
16.2 Physical Aspects of Ventilation
Intrapulmonary and Intrapleural Pressures
Physical Properties of the Lungs
Surfactant and Respiratory Distress Syndrome
16.3 Mechanics of Breathing
Inspiration and Expiration
Pulmonary Function Tests
Pulmonary Disorders
16.4 Gas Exchange in the Lungs
Calculation of PO2
Partial Pressures of Gases in Blood
Significance of Blood PO2 and PCO2 Measurements
Pulmonary Circulation and Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios
Disorders Caused by High Partial Pressures of Gases
16.5 Regulation of Breathing
Brain Stem Respiratory Centers
Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation
Effects of Blood PO2 on Ventilation
Effects of Pulmonary Receptors on Ventilation
16.6 Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport
The Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Effect of pH and Temperature on Oxygen Transport
Effect of 2,3-DPG on Oxygen Transport
Inherited Defects in Hemoglobin Structure and Function
Muscle Myoglobin
16.7 Carbon Dioxide Transport
The Chloride Shift
The Reverse Chloride Shift
16.8 Acid-Base Balance of the Blood
Principles of Acid-Base Balance
Ventilation and Acid-Base Balance
16.9 Effect of Exercise and High Altitude on Respiratory Function
Ventilation During Exercise
Acclimatization to High Altitude
Review Activities
17   Physiology of the Kidneys
17.1 Structure and Function of the Kidneys
Gross Structure of the Urinary System
Control of Micturition
Microscopic Structure of the Kidney
17.2 Glomerular Filtration
Glomerular Ultrafiltrate
Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate
17.3 Reabsorption of Salt and Water
Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule
The Countercurrent Multiplier System
Collecting Duct: Effect of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
17.4 Renal Plasma Clearance
Transport Process Affecting Renal Clearance
Renal Clearance of Inulin: Measurement of GFR
Renal Clearance Measurements
Reabsorption of Glucose
17.5 Renal Control of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance
Role of Aldosterone in Na+/K+ Balance
Control of Aldosterone Secretion
Natriuretic Peptides
Relationship Between Na+, K+, and H+
Renal Acid-Base Regulation
17.6 Diuretics and Renal Function Tests
Use of Diuretics
Renal Function Tests and Kidney Disease
Review Activities
18   The Digestive System
18.1 Introduction to the Digestive System
Layers of the Alimentary Tract
Regulation of the Alimentary Tract
18.2 From Mouth to Stomach
Pepsin and Hydrochloric Acid Secretion
18.3 Small Intestine
Villi and Microvilli
Intestinal Enzymes
Intestinal Contractions and Motility
18.4 Large Intestine
Intestinal Microbiota
Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption in the Intestine
18.5 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas
Structure of the Liver
Functions of the Liver
18.6 Regulation of the Digestive System
Regulation of Gastric Function
Regulation of Intestinal Function
Regulation of Pancreatic Juice and Bile Secretion
Trophic Effects of Gastrointestinal Hormones
18.7 Digestion and Absorption of Food
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates
Digestion and Absorption of Proteins
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids
Review Activities
19   Regulation of Metabolism
19.1 Nutritional Requirements
Metabolic Rate and Caloric Requirements
Anabolic Requirements
Vitamins and Minerals
Free Radicals and Antioxidants
19.2 Regulation of Energy Metabolism
Regulatory Functions of Adipose Tissue
Regulation of Hunger and Metabolic Rate
Caloric Expenditures
Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism
19.3 Energy Regulation by the Pancreatic Islets
Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion
Insulin and Glucagon: Absorptive State
Insulin and Glucagon: Postabsorptive State
19.4 Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
19.5 Metabolic Regulation by Adrenal Hormones, Thyroxine, and Growth Hormone
Adrenal Hormones
Growth Hormone
19.6 Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
Bone Deposition and Resorption
Hormonal Regulation of Bone
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3
Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
Review Activities
20   Reproduction
20.1 Sexual Reproduction
Sex Determination
Development of Accessory Sex Organs and External Genitalia
Disorders of Embryonic Sexual Development
20.2 Endocrine Regulation of Reproduction
Interactions Among the Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, and Gonads
Onset of Puberty
Pineal Gland
Human Sexual Response
20.3 Male Reproductive System
Control of Gonadotropin Secretion
Endocrine Functions of the Testes
Male Accessory Sex Organs
Erection, Emission, and Ejaculation
Male Fertility
20.4 Female Reproductive System
Ovarian Cycle
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis
20.5 Menstrual Cycle
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Cyclic Changes in the Ovaries
Cyclic Changes in the Endometrium
Effects of Pheromones, Stress, and Body Fat
Contraceptive Methods
20.6 Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Parturition
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation
Implantation of the Blastocyst and Formation of the Placenta
Exchange of Molecules Across the Placenta
Endocrine Functions of the Placenta
Labor and Parturition
Concluding Remarks
Review Activities
Answers to Test Your Knowledge Questions
Medical and Pharmacological Abbreviations