Lecture Notes in Pharmacy Practice - مدونة كل العرب الطبية

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الثلاثاء، 17 يناير 2017

Lecture Notes in Pharmacy Practice

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This is a comprehensive study/revision guide which summarises the basic principles in pharmacy practice. It comprises 70 concise chapters covering clinical pharmacy in both community and hospital settings, as well as the practice of pharmacy in other areas. This text is an essential resource for pharmacy students studying for exams, providing clear, bulleted information for quick reference and short questions at the end of each chapter to aid exam preparation. Essential information is covered in the following five sections of the book: introduction to pharmacy; clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapeutics; responding to symptoms in community pharmacy; pharmacy information and research; and, pharmacy systems. This book follows and complements three other titles which were also edited by Professor Azzopardi: "Further MCQs in Pharmacy Practice" (2006), "MCQs in Clinical Pharmacy" (2007) and "MCQs in Pharmacy Practice, 2nd Edition" (September 2009). "Lecture Notes in Pharmacy Practice" will help to prepare students for what they will experience when they start practising in real-life healthcare settings. It will also apply to practitioners in their day-to-day work, aiding pharmacists in their efforts to stay abreast and maintain competency.
Table of contents : 
Title page......Page 4
Contents......Page 6
Foreword......Page 10
Preface......Page 12
Acknowledgements......Page 13
About the editor......Page 14
Contributors......Page 15
How to use this book......Page 16
Abbreviations......Page 17
Part 1......Page 18
Tracing the origins of pharmacy......Page 20
Development of medicines......Page 21
Development of pharmaceutical regulation......Page 23
Further reading......Page 24
Acknowledgements......Page 25
Pharmacist interventions in the healthcare system......Page 26
Quality improvement......Page 27
Measuring outcomes......Page 28
References......Page 29
Administration of medicines......Page 30
Route of administration......Page 31
Topical route......Page 32
Nasal administration......Page 33
Parenteral route......Page 34
Answers......Page 35
Further reading......Page 36
Medical devices......Page 37
Development of medicines......Page 38
Barriers to proper use of medicines......Page 39
Identifying patient needs......Page 40
Adverse drug reactions......Page 41
Medication errors......Page 42
Poisoning......Page 43
Further reading......Page 44
References......Page 45
Organisation of a community pharmacy......Page 46
Provision of patient-focused services from community pharmacies......Page 47
Further reading......Page 48
Collection of medicine......Page 50
Practice summary......Page 51
Further reading......Page 52
Themes of health promotion in community pharmacies......Page 53
Answer......Page 54
Further reading......Page 55
Communication process......Page 56
Counselling in the hospital setting......Page 57
Pharmacist counselling process......Page 58
Further reading......Page 59
Categories of non-adherence......Page 61
Strategies to improve patient adherence......Page 62
Reference......Page 63
Concentration......Page 64
Dilutions......Page 65
Calculations involving molecular weights......Page 66
Calculating the amount of ingredients......Page 67
Calculation of doses......Page 68
Rate of flow of intravenous solutions......Page 69
Further reading......Page 70
Background......Page 71
Point-of-care testing......Page 72
Monitoring of body weight......Page 73
Diabetes monitoring......Page 74
International normalised ratio......Page 75
Urine specimen sampling......Page 76
Answers......Page 77
Further reading......Page 78
Part 2......Page 80
Pharmaceutical care process:......Page 82
Example of pharmacist care plan in community pharmacy setting......Page 84
Answer......Page 85
Further reading......Page 86
Drug action: receptors......Page 87
Pharmacogenetics and inter-individual variation in drug responses......Page 89
Risk–benefit ratio of drugs......Page 90
Answer......Page 91
Further reading......Page 92
Factors affecting rate and degree of absorption (oral route of administration)......Page 93
Elimination parameters......Page 95
Distribution – tissue distribution......Page 94
Further reading......Page 96
Constipation......Page 97
Laxatives......Page 98
Diarrhoea......Page 100
Answers......Page 101
Reference......Page 102
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease......Page 103
Peptic ulcer......Page 104
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding......Page 107
Reference......Page 108
Ulcerative colitis......Page 109
Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease......Page 110
Intestinal malabsorption syndrome: coeliac disease......Page 112
Further reading......Page 113
Pharmacotherapy......Page 114
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV)......Page 115
Answers......Page 116
Further reading......Page 117
Physical examination......Page 118
Cardiac catheterisation......Page 119
Coronary artery by-pass surgery (CABG)......Page 120
Managing cardiac emergencies......Page 121
Further reading......Page 123
Regulation of blood pressure......Page 124
Blood pressure measurement......Page 125
Management of hypertension......Page 126
Drug therapy......Page 127
Potential problems with nonprescription medicines in hypertension......Page 133
Phaeochromocytoma......Page 134
Practice summary......Page 135
Answers......Page 136
Acknowledgements......Page 137
Diagnosis......Page 138
Treatment of angina......Page 139
ACE inhibitors and management of angina......Page 141
Practice summary......Page 142
Acknowledgements......Page 143
Classification......Page 144
Treatment......Page 145
Answers......Page 147
Acknowledgements......Page 148
Combined hyperlipidaemia......Page 149
Statins......Page 150
Other pharmacological treatment......Page 152
Further reading......Page 153
Acknowledgements......Page 154
Venous thromboembolism (VTE)......Page 155
Heparin (unfractionated heparin)......Page 156
Oral anticoagulants: warfarin......Page 157
Arterial thromboembolism......Page 158
Acknowledgements......Page 159
Antihistamines......Page 160
Allergic rhinitis......Page 163
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease......Page 164
Further reading......Page 166
Diagnostic criteria......Page 167
Management options......Page 168
Patient counselling and monitoring......Page 171
Practice summary......Page 172
References......Page 173
Depression......Page 174
Antidepressant drugs......Page 176
Discontinuation syndrome......Page 178
Hyponatraemia and antidepressants......Page 179
Practice summary......Page 180
Reference......Page 181
Characteristics......Page 182
Generalised anxiety disorder......Page 183
Panic disorder......Page 184
Obsessive–compulsive disorder......Page 185
Answer......Page 186
Further reading......Page 187
Types of sleep......Page 188
Sleep management......Page 189
Hypnotic drugs......Page 190
Other hypnotics......Page 191
Natural products that can be used in sleep disturbance......Page 192
Restless leg syndrome......Page 193
Further reading......Page 194
Asthenia......Page 195
Obesity......Page 196
Binge eating disorder......Page 198
Pharmacotherapy of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder......Page 199
Acknowledgements......Page 200
The endogenous analgesia system......Page 201
Assessment of pain......Page 202
Analgesic drugs......Page 203
Classification of headache......Page 207
Practice summary......Page 209
Further reading......Page 210
Diagnostic criteria......Page 211
Pharmacotherapy......Page 212
Management of mood disorders......Page 213
Further reading......Page 214
Pathology......Page 215
Pharmacotherapy......Page 216
Answers......Page 218
Reference......Page 219
Patients at risk of developing nosocomial infections......Page 220
Choice and use of systemic antibacterial drugs......Page 221
Penicillins......Page 222
Cephalosporins......Page 225
Telithromycin......Page 226
Sulphonamides and trimethoprim......Page 227
Antituberculous drugs......Page 228
Antiviral agents......Page 229
Anthelmintic drugs......Page 230
Answers......Page 231
Further reading......Page 232
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)......Page 233
Antiviral agents and HIV......Page 234
Viral sensitivity and resistance......Page 235
Answer......Page 236
Further reading......Page 237
Hepatitis A......Page 238
Treatment of chronic hepatitis......Page 239
Questions......Page 240
Further reading......Page 241
Hyperthyroidism......Page 242
Thyroid crisis......Page 244
Hypothyroidism......Page 245
Further reading......Page 246
Type 1 diabetes mellitus......Page 247
Management......Page 248
Acarbose......Page 249
Insulin......Page 250
Hypoglycaemia......Page 251
Diabetic ketoacidosis......Page 252
Practice summary......Page 253
Further reading......Page 254
Background......Page 255
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)......Page 256
Practice summary......Page 258
References......Page 259
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)......Page 260
Menorrhagia......Page 261
Progestogens......Page 262
Oral contraceptives......Page 263
Further reading......Page 267
Benign prostatic hyperplasia......Page 268
Overactive bladder......Page 269
Further reading......Page 271
Risk factors for cancer......Page 273
Cytotoxic chemotherapy......Page 274
Chemotherapy agents......Page 276
Palliative care......Page 278
Answers......Page 279
Further reading......Page 280
Diagnostic tests......Page 281
Iron-deficiency anaemia......Page 282
Anaemia and chronic renal failure......Page 283
Practice summary......Page 284
Further reading......Page 285
Diagnostic criteria......Page 286
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs......Page 287
Biologic agents......Page 289
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs......Page 290
Acknowledgements......Page 292
Drug therapy in osteoarthritis......Page 293
Gout and hyperuricaemia......Page 294
Practice summary......Page 296
Acknowledgements......Page 297
Background......Page 298
Further reading......Page 303
Dosage forms for topical application......Page 304
Topical corticosteroids......Page 305
Dandruff – pityriasis capitis......Page 306
Topical drugs affecting the immune system......Page 307
Acne......Page 308
Psoriasis......Page 309
Questions......Page 310
Further reading......Page 311
Process of wound healing......Page 312
Dressings......Page 313
Further reading......Page 315
Pharmacist actions in geriatric patient care......Page 316
Appropriate drug selection......Page 317
Ensuring optimum drug use by an elderly patient......Page 318
Practice summary......Page 319
Further reading......Page 320
Vaccination programme......Page 321
Cradle cap......Page 323
Pharmacokinetics......Page 324
Problems of use of medicines in paediatric patients......Page 325
Answers......Page 326
References......Page 327
Background......Page 328
Lifestyle modifications and pregnancy......Page 329
Symptoms commonly presented in pregnancy......Page 330
Chronic conditions......Page 331
Breast-feeding and use of medicines......Page 332
Further reading......Page 333
Physiological markers used for health evaluation......Page 334
Hyperkalaemia......Page 335
Question......Page 336
Acknowledgements......Page 337
Recent developments in drugs acting on the cardiovascular system......Page 338
Recent developments in infectious disease management......Page 339
Extensions of existing therapies......Page 340
Further reading......Page 341
Part 3......Page 342
Influenza......Page 344
Nasal decongestants......Page 345
Mucolytics......Page 346
Influenza vaccine......Page 347
Answers......Page 348
Reference......Page 349
Eyelid disorders......Page 350
Ophthalmic preparations......Page 351
Glaucoma......Page 352
Contact lenses......Page 354
Answers......Page 355
Further reading......Page 356
Mouth ulcers......Page 357
Oral candidal infections......Page 358
Gingivitis and periodontal disease......Page 359
Oral hygiene......Page 360
Further reading......Page 361
Corns and calluses and verrucae......Page 362
Athlete’s foot (tinea pedis)......Page 363
Ingrown toenails......Page 364
Answers......Page 365
Further reading......Page 366
Disorders of the external auditory canal......Page 367
Disorders of the middle ear......Page 368
Disorders of the inner ear......Page 369
Practice summary......Page 370
Further reading......Page 371
Description of injuries......Page 372
When to refer musculoskeletal disorders......Page 373
Pharmacological approach......Page 374
Answers......Page 375
Further reading......Page 376
Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain......Page 377
Heartburn......Page 378
Diarrhoea......Page 379
Vaginal thrush (vaginal candidiasis)......Page 380
Haemorrhoids......Page 381
Practice summary......Page 382
Further reading......Page 383
Medical kits for travel......Page 384
Travel vaccinations......Page 385
Problems related to air travel......Page 386
Problems related to environmental hazards......Page 387
Further reading......Page 389
Part 4......Page 390
Sources of information......Page 392
Further reading......Page 394
References......Page 395
Preparing a report and papers for submission to journals......Page 396
Vancouver style of writing references......Page 397
Further reading......Page 399
Research methods......Page 400
Terms used in research investigations......Page 401
Designing questionnaires......Page 403
Evaluation of research study......Page 404
Journal articles......Page 405
Further reading......Page 406
Part 5......Page 408
Primary healthcare......Page 410
Supplementary and pharmacist prescribing......Page 411
Further reading......Page 412
Business operations......Page 413
Starting a pharmacy......Page 414
Computers in pharmacy......Page 416
Further reading......Page 417
Purchasing of equipment......Page 418
Professional hospital pharmacy services......Page 419
Drug information services......Page 420
Answer......Page 421
Further reading......Page 422
Historical perspective on the development of hospital formularies......Page 423
Formulary system......Page 424
Ethical implications of developing a formulary system......Page 425
Reference......Page 426
Authorisation of medicines......Page 427
EU Good Manufacturing Practice (EU GMP)......Page 428
EU Good Distribution Practice (EUGDP)......Page 429
Answers......Page 430
References......Page 431
Milestones......Page 432
Quality care standards......Page 433
Areas included in generic standards......Page 434
Answers......Page 436
References......Page 437
Bibliography......Page 438
Index......Page 440


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