Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Handbook of Natural Products: Phytochemistry, Botany and Metabolism of Alkaloids, Phenolics and Terpenes




This reference work provides a wealth of information regarding medicinal plants and phytochemicals. It is addressed both to researchers and teachers.

The handbook describes phytochemicals, which, by the strictest definition, are chemicals that are produced by plants. During the last decades, more and more groups became actively involved in exploring plants for useful metabolites that lead to the identification of several useful curative agents and many promising molecules to fight and/or prevent diseases, including carcinogenesis and stroke. But when we talk about phytochemicals, there are also medicinal plants where not a single molecule is responsible for the observed properties. This reference work therefore reviews and compiles the information on both these aspects.

The volumes contain contributions on phytochemicals and herbal extracts. A large number of natural products obtained from plants and microorganisms is used in cosmetic, drug, flavor and fragrance industries. For this compilation, a range of the most important medicinal herbs and phytochemicals were selected and are described by the recognized authors in the field.

The present reference work encompasses the information about well established phytochemicals, biology and biotechnology of medicinal plants or their products, their biosynthesis, novel production strategies, demand and uses, metabolism and bioavailability. There is a surge of information published in recent years on herbal medicine and their pharmacologic effects with single books available on varied subjects. However, all this information is widespread and difficult to overview. Researchers who wish to keep a pace with the rapidly developing field of natural products can now consult this newly compiled handbook to find all information about bioactive molecules and medicinal plants thoroughly compiled in one place!
Table of contents : 
Preface......Page 5
About the Editors......Page 7
Contents......Page 9
List of Contributors......Page 21
References......Page 0
3 Neurotoxic Alkaloids from Cyanobacteria......Page 79
6 Ecological Role of Alkaloids......Page 186
7 Plant In Vitro Systems as Sources of Tropane Alkaloids......Page 209
8 Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering for Alkaloid Production......Page 248
10 Internet Natural Product Trade, Business, and Risk of Damaged and/or Contaminated Products......Page 319
15 Alkaloids Derived from Tyrosine: Modified Benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids......Page 434
16 Alkaloids Derived from Tyrosine: Penethylisoquinoline (Autumnaline, Colchicine)......Page 490
2 Occurrence......Page 493
17 Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids......Page 508
18 Bioactive Alkaloids from Fungi: Psilocybin......Page 552
19 Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan:Harmine and Related Alkaloids......Page 582
20 Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan:Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids......Page 604
21 Chemistry and Biology of Cinchona Alkaloids......Page 634
23 Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan: A Focus on Ergot Alkaloids......Page 671
24
Alkaloids Derived from Anthranilic Acid: Quinoline, Acridone, and Quinazoline......Page 703
References......Page 840
22 Chemistry and Biology of Camptothecin and its Derivatives......Page 848
25
Alkaloids Derived from Histidine: Imidazole (Pilocarpine, Pilosine)......Page 888
26
Alkaloids Derived by Amination Reaction: Acetate-Derived (Coniine)......Page 910
27 Ephedra Alkaloids-Alkaloids Derived byAmination Reaction: PhenylalanineDerived......Page 935
28 Terpenoid Alkaloids Derived by AminationReaction......Page 949
29 Purine Alkaloids, Cytokinins, andPurine-Like Neurotoxin Alkaloids......Page 978
30 Aziridine Alkaloids: Origin, Chemistry and Activity......Page 1001
34 Analysis of Catharanthus Alkaloids......Page 1032
33 Methods of Analysis of Opium Alkaloids......Page 1044
31 Methods of Analysis: Tropane Alkaloids from Plant Origin......Page 1096
35 Methods for Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids......Page 1136
32 Methods for Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids......Page 1156
36 Analysis of Alkaloids by Capillary Electrophoresis......Page 1176
37 Pharmacology of Macroalgae Alkaloids......Page 1224
49 Alkaloids and Inhibitory Effects Against Enzymes Linked to Neurodegenerative Diseases (Physostigmine, Galanthamine, Huperzine,......Page 1238
38 Pharmacological Effects of Ephedrine......Page 1253
39 Lycopodium Alkaloids: Pharmacology......Page 1274
42 Alkaloids and Drug Discovery forNeurodegenerative Diseases......Page 1298
43
Opioids and Pain Treatment......Page 1333
46 Antiangiogenic Alkaloids from Plants......Page 1349
References......Page 1370
40 Scope of Alkaloids in Antileishmanial Drug Discovery and Development......Page 1378
44
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Toxicity to the Liver......Page 1415
47 Prevention of Brain Disorders by Nicotine......Page 1428
References......Page 1452
41 Pharmacological/Biological Effects of Berberine......Page 1461
45
Biological Activities of Pepper Alkaloids......Page 1490
48 Aconitum Alkaloids and Biological Activities......Page 1531
56 Functional Foods: Genetics, Metabolome, and Engineering Phytonutrient Levels......Page 1553
52 Cocoa Cultivation, Directed Breeding and Polyphenolics......Page 1588
54 Isoflavonoid Production by Genetically Engineered Microorganisms......Page 1635
55 Bioproduction of trans-Resveratrol from Grapevine Cell Cultures......Page 1670
50 Phenolic Compounds: Introduction......Page 1701
51 Metabolic Engineering for Functional Foods: Tomato Fruits and Stilbenes......Page 1739
57 Flavanols: Catechins and Proanthocyanidins......Page 1757
58 Anthocyanins......Page 1806
59 Flavones and Flavonols: Phytochemistry and Biochemistry......Page 1823
References......Page 1841
61 Minor Flavonoids (Chalcones, Flavanones, Dihydrochalcones, and Aurones)......Page 1867
62 Stilbenoids......Page 1901
63 Phenolic Acids......Page 1950
64 Hydrolyzable Tannins: Gallotannins and Ellagitannins......Page 1973
79 Bioavailability of Anthocyanins......Page 2304
75 Polyphenols and Beer Quality......Page 2349
76 Wine Polyphenols and Vascular Protective Effects......Page 2376
77 Isoflavonoids and Phytoestrogenic Activity......Page 2396
78 Phenolics in Human Nutrition: Importance of the Intestinal Microbiome for Isoflavone and Lignan Bioavailability......Page 2448
80 Prospects of Functional Foods/Nutraceuticals and Markets......Page 2480
92 Selection of Tomato Rich in Nutritional Terpenes......Page 2797
105 Plant Steroidal Saponins: A Focus on Open-Chain Glycosides......Page 3128
106 Tetraterpenes: Carotenoids......Page 3154
137 Pyrethrins and Synthetic Pyrethroids: Use in Veterinary Medicine......Page 3220
107 Essential Oils: Analytical Methods to Control the Quality of Perfumes......Page 3246
110 Quassinoids: Chemistry and Novel Detection Techniques......Page 3270
111 Methods for Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids......Page 3292
122
Ginkgolides and Neuroprotective Effects......Page 3337
112 Cannabinoids: Chemistry and Medicine......Page 3382
113 Phytosterols: Beneficial Effects......Page 3403
114 Withanolides: Chemistry and Antitumor Activity......Page 3431
115 Pharmacology of Ginsenosides......Page 3462
116
Sesquiterpenes and Cytotoxicity......Page 3480
117
Tanshinones Against Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases and their Biosynthesis......Page 3516
118
Strigolactones and Biological Activity......Page 3547
Part XIV Terpenes: Parapharmaceutical Uses......Page 3569
119
Biological Activity of Oleuropein and its Derivatives......Page 3570
120
Bacosides and Neuroprotection......Page 3604
121
Garlic and Cardiovascular Diseases......Page 3626
References......Page 3652
123
Cardiac Glycosides and Anticancer Activity......Page 3662
125 Quassinoids: Anticancer and Antimalarial Activities......Page 3693
126 Glycyrrhizic Acid: Biological Effects on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism......Page 3721
129 Lycopene in Cancer Prevention......Page 3746
References......Page 3781
130 Xanthophylls and the Eye......Page 3794
131 Triterpenoid Centellosides: Bioactivities and Uses in Healthcare Application......Page 3830
References......Page 3841
133 Menthol: Biological Effects and Toxicity......Page 3859
135 Carotenoids as Colorants......Page 3885
128 Brassinosteroids and their Biological Activities......Page 3905
References......Page 3920
136 Oleoresins from Pine: Production and Industrial Uses......Page 3926
109 Methods of Isolation and Analysis of Forskolin from Coleus forskohlii......Page 3950
108 Methods for Analysis of Triterpenoid Saponins......Page 3969
138 Essential Oils in Insect Control......Page 3982
139 Biological Activities of Selected Mono- and Sesquiterpenes: Possible Uses in Medicine......Page 4003