Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 2d Edition - مدونة كل العرب الطبية

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الثلاثاء، 17 يناير 2017

Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 2d Edition

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A new classic' in a new edition! Fully revised and updated throughout. New sections on antimicrobials. From journal reviews of the previous edition: 'Drawing on their wealth of experience and knowledge in this field, the authors, who are without doubt among the finest minds in pharmacognosy today, provide useful and fascinating insights into the history, botany, chemistry, phytotherapy and importance of medicinal plants in some of today's health care systems. This is a landmark textbook, which carefully brings together relevant data from numerous sources and provides in an authoritative and exhaustive manner, cutting edge information that is relevant to pharmacists, pharmacognocists, complementary practitioners, doctors and nurses alike.' The Pharmaceutical Journal 'This is the first book that I have encountered which combines the compounds and plants found in standard pharmacognosy textbooks, i.e. those used in orthodox Western medicine, with the 'new phytopharmaceuticals' which have become established in Western culture over the last 20 years. The medical establishment in this environment is finally catching up with the practices of the general population and so this book is an excellent choice for those who wish to investigate which of the many plants available have some scientific credence. I shall be adding this book to the Essential Reading list for all of the undergraduate students on our pharmacy degree course and would encourage all those involved in teaching pharmacy students to do the same." P.J. Houghton, Department of Pharmacy, King's College London, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 'Educated pharmacists no doubt equate Pharmacognosy with hours spent hunched over a microscope identifying vegetable drugs. Many probably consider it as a subject with little importance in a modern pharmacy curriculum. How wrong they are! ... This book is designed to give an overview at an easy-to-understand level of a broad subject area... For students of science and of the healthcare professions it is a useful text and the authors are to be commended for their work.' Irish Pharmacy Journal From customer reviews: 'A new classic. This is an excellent publication both for science students and the non scientific who have an interest in phytotherapy. The layout is logical and clearly set out. I love the chemical structural diagrams, and the explanations of even complex sequences are easy to understand with very little jargon. It is encouraging to see pharmacognosy being given a prominent place in a modern textbook, and interesting to see both hand drawings and chemical structures on the same page!' 'I can recommend this to anyone who is interested in the science behind herbal products and medicines; especially if you are interested in plants. It's quite simple to follow and very concise! Good for pharmacy students.' 'This is an ultimate texbook in this subject and a boon for students of M Pharmacy (Pharmacognosy) as well as undergraduates students of Pharmacy. Besides them, it is really suitable for every course comprising a study of plants and their medicinal use.' 'Excellent reference book. As an editor, I instantly found the answers to various questions I had regarding botanical descriptions. And it even answered questions that I hadn't gotten around to asking. Highly recommended!'
Table of contents : 
Fundamentals of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 2nd Edition......Page 4
Contents......Page 6
Foreword......Page 8
Preface......Page 10
Part A: Fundamentals of pharmacognosy......Page 12
Section 1: Phytotherapy and pharmacognosy......Page 13
Natural Products Or Compounds Isolated From Nature......Page 14
Use of Herbal Medicines......Page 15
United Kingdom......Page 16
Unlicensed Herbal Medicines......Page 17
Canada......Page 18
United States of America (Usa)......Page 19
Further Reading......Page 20
Early Arabic and European Records......Page 21
Classical Arabic, Greek and Roman records......Page 22
Other Asian Traditional Medicine......Page 23
Jamu......Page 24
The European Middle Ages and Arabia......Page 25
Printed Reports in the European Tradition (16th Century)......Page 28
European Pharmacognosy and Natural Product Chemistry in the 18th and 19th Centuries......Page 30
References......Page 33
Further Reading......Page 34
Section 2: Basic plant biology......Page 35
Plants and Drugs......Page 36
Taxonomy......Page 37
Flower......Page 38
Fruit and Seed......Page 39
Leaves......Page 40
Drugs......Page 41
Root......Page 42
Reference......Page 43
Important Medicinal Plants From the Family......Page 44
Chemical Characteristics of the Family......Page 45
Important Medicinal Plants From the Family......Page 46
Morphological Characteristics of the Family (Fig.4.3)......Page 47
Distribution......Page 48
Morphological Characteristics of the Family......Page 49
Chemical Characteristics of the Family......Page 50
Morphological Characteristics of the Family (Fig.4.9)......Page 51
Distribution......Page 52
Chemical Characteristics of the Family......Page 53
Distribution......Page 54
Chemical Characteristics of the Family......Page 55
Important Medicinal Plants From the Family......Page 56
Distribution......Page 57
Distribution......Page 58
Further Reading......Page 59
Ethnobotany......Page 60
The Story of Curare......Page 64
Ethnopharmacology and the Convention on Biological Diversity (convention of Rio)......Page 65
Bioprospecting and Ethnopharmacology......Page 66
Examples of Modern Ethnopharmacological Studies......Page 67
References......Page 69
Further Reading......Page 70
Section 3: Natural product chemistry......Page 71
Natural Products in Drug Discovery......Page 72
The Polyketides......Page 76
Fatty Acids and Glycerides......Page 77
The Tetracyclines......Page 78
Erythromycin A......Page 80
Shikimic-acid-derived Natural Products......Page 81
Phenylpropenes......Page 82
Lignans......Page 83
Coumarins......Page 84
Flavonoids......Page 86
Tannins......Page 88
Monoterpenes (C10)......Page 89
Sesquiterpenes (C15)......Page 92
Diterpenes......Page 93
Triterpenes......Page 97
Tetraterpenes (C40)......Page 99
Cyanide Glycosides......Page 102
Glucosinolates......Page 103
Cardiac Glycosides......Page 104
Anthraquinone Glycosides......Page 105
The Alkaloids......Page 106
Pyridine, Piperidine and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids......Page 107
Phenylalkylamine Alkaloids......Page 108
Quinoline Alkaloids......Page 109
Isoquinoline Alkaloids......Page 110
Indole Alkaloids......Page 111
Tropane Alkaloids......Page 114
Xanthine Alkaloids......Page 115
Further Reading......Page 116
Preparation and Extraction......Page 117
Isolation Methods......Page 119
Ion-exchange Chromatography......Page 120
Biotage Flash Chromatography......Page 121
Thin-layer Chromatography......Page 122
High-performance Liquid Chromatography......Page 123
Isolation Strategy......Page 124
Mass Spectrometry......Page 125
1H Nmr Spectroscopy......Page 126
13C Nmr Spectroscopy......Page 128
Heteronuclear Correlation Spectroscopy......Page 129
X-ray Structural Analysis......Page 132
Choice of Biological Target......Page 133
Assay Selection and Development......Page 134
Dereplication......Page 135
Natural Product Libraries......Page 136
Why Natural Products as Drugs?......Page 137
Further Reading......Page 139
The National Cancer Institute......Page 140
Marine Anticancer Natural Products......Page 142
Camptotheca Acuminata (Nyssaceae)......Page 144
Taxus Brevifolia (Taxaceae)......Page 146
Betula Alba (Betulaceae)......Page 147
Podophyllum Peltatum (Berberidaceae)......Page 148
Catharanthus Roseus (Apocynaceae)......Page 149
The Anthracyclines......Page 150
The Bleomycins......Page 151
Further Strategies for the Discovery of Antitumour Agents......Page 152
Further Reading......Page 153
Section 4: Pharmaceuticals andnutraceuticals derivedfrom plant extracts......Page 154
Biological Resources And conservation......Page 155
Moisture Levels......Page 156
In Vitro Cultivation......Page 157
Drug Preparation and Extraction......Page 158
Effect of Preparation Methods On content......Page 159
Quality Control: General Procedures......Page 160
Botanical (classical Pharmacognostical) Methods......Page 162
Drug: Solvent Ratio and Drug Extract ratio......Page 163
Standardization......Page 165
Quantified Extracts......Page 166
Digitalis Purpurea Folium (foxglove Leaves)......Page 167
Quality Control......Page 168
Ginkgo Biloba Leaves......Page 169
Quality Control......Page 170
References......Page 171
Further Reading......Page 172
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids......Page 173
Aconitine and Controversial Claims About `detoxification´......Page 174
Plant Lectins and Agglutinins......Page 175
References......Page 176
Properties of Mixtures......Page 177
Mechanisms of Interaction......Page 178
Measuring Synergy......Page 179
Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba......Page 180
Cannabis, Cannabis Sativa......Page 181
Other Reasons for Not Isolating Individual Constituents......Page 182
References......Page 183
Further Reading......Page 184
Section 5: Medicinal plants in selectedhealthcare systems......Page 185
Introduction......Page 186
Correlation of Traditional Use With scientific Evidence......Page 187
The Development of Tcm......Page 188
The Vital Organs......Page 189
Ayurveda......Page 190
Tridosha: Vata, Pitta and Kapha - the Three Humors......Page 193
Dhatus, the Seven Tissues......Page 194
Traditional African Medical Systems......Page 195
Concepts in Traditional African Medical Systems......Page 198
Further Reading......Page 199
Modern Herbalism......Page 200
Herbalists´ Prescriptions......Page 201
Evidence of Efficacy and Safety......Page 202
Modern Homoeopathy......Page 203
Homoeopathic Remedies......Page 204
Safety......Page 205
Anthroposophic Medicines......Page 206
Modern Aromatherapy......Page 207
Essential Oils......Page 208
Flower Remedies......Page 209
References......Page 210
Further Reading......Page 211
Part B: Important natural products and phytomedicines used in pharmacy and medicine......Page 212
Standard References Consulted for the Preparation of Monographs......Page 213
Starch (amylum)......Page 214
Bulk-forming Laxatives......Page 215
Osmotic Laxatives......Page 216
Toxicity of Anthranoid Drugs......Page 217
Senna, Cassia Senna L. and C. Angustifolia Vahl (Senna) (Sennae Fructus, Sennae Folium)......Page 218
Chamomile Matricaria Recutita L. (Matricariae Flos)......Page 219
Constituents......Page 220
Gentian, Gentiana Lutea L. (Gentianae Radix)......Page 221
Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium L. (Absinthii Herba)......Page 222
Constituents......Page 223
Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Bloating and Flatulence......Page 224
Spearmint, Mentha x Spicata L., Syn. M. Crispa, M. Spicata Subsp. Crispa......Page 225
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 226
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 227
References......Page 228
Heart Failure and Arrhythmias......Page 230
Hawthorn, Crataegus Spp. (Crataegi folium Cum Flore, Crataegi fructus)......Page 231
Constituents......Page 232
Horse Chestnut, Aesculus Hippocastaneum L. (Hippocastani Semen)......Page 233
Red Root Sage, Salvia Miltiorrhiza L. (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix)......Page 234
Antiplatelet and Anti Atherosclerotic Drugs......Page 235
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 236
References......Page 237
Ephedra, Ephedra Spp. (Ephedrae Herba)......Page 238
Inhalations......Page 239
Anti-allergics......Page 240
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 241
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 242
Ivy, Hedera Helix L. (Hederae Folium)......Page 243
Constituents......Page 244
Demulcents and Emollients......Page 245
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 246
Constituents......Page 247
Constituents......Page 248
Constituents......Page 249
References......Page 250
Further Reading......Page 251
Hypnotics and Sedatives......Page 252
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 253
Constituents......Page 254
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 255
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 256
Cola Nut, Cola Spp. (Colae Semen)......Page 257
Constituents......Page 258
Constituents......Page 259
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 260
References......Page 261
18 Infectious Diseases......Page 263
Umckaloabo (Pelargonium), Pelargonium Sidoides Dc and P. reniforme Curt (Pelargonii Radix)......Page 264
Lemon Balm, Melissa Officinalis L. (Melissae Folium)......Page 265
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 266
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 267
Constituents......Page 268
Single Chemical Entity (Sce) and Novel Plant Antibacterials......Page 269
Antiprotozoal Agents......Page 271
Cinchona, Cinchona Spp. (Cinchonae Cortex)......Page 272
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 273
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 274
References......Page 275
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 277
Phytoestrogens......Page 278
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 279
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 280
Nettle, Urtica Dioica L. (Urticae Herba, radix)......Page 281
Saw Palmetto, Serenoa Serrulata Hook. F. (Sabalis Serrulatae Fructus)......Page 282
References......Page 283
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 285
Papaverine......Page 286
References......Page 287
Bromelain (Ananase)......Page 288
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 289
Turmeric, Curcuma Domestica Val. (Curcumae Domesticae Rhizoma)......Page 290
Constituents......Page 291
Arnica, Arnica Montana L. (Arnicae flos)......Page 292
Wintergreen Oil, Gaultheria Procumbens L., Betula Lenta L.......Page 293
References......Page 294
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 296
Evening Primrose Oil, Oenothera Biennis L. (Oenothera Biennis Oleum) and Other Spp.......Page 297
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 298
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 299
References......Page 300
Glaucoma......Page 302
Reference......Page 303
Peppermint Oil, Mentha x Piperita L. (Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum)......Page 304
Clove, Syzygium Aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Caryophylli Flos)......Page 305
References......Page 306
Cancer Chemoprevention......Page 307
Ashwagandha, Withania Somniferum (L.) Dunal.......Page 308
Constituents......Page 309
Constituents......Page 310
Constituents......Page 311
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 312
Therapeutic Uses and Available Evidence......Page 313
References......Page 314
Continuing Changes in Pharmaceutical Education......Page 315
Pharmacognosy......Page 316
Public Perception of Medicines......Page 317
Safety......Page 318
Developing Countries......Page 319
Conclusions......Page 320
References......Page 321
Index......Page 322


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