Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 4e - مدونة كل العرب الطبية

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الثلاثاء، 17 يناير 2017

Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 4e

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Providing a solid introduction to the essentials of diagnostic microbiology, this accessible, full-color text helps you develop the problem-solving skills necessary for success in the clinical setting. A reader-friendly, "building block" approach to microbiology moves progressively from basic concepts to advanced understanding, guiding you through the systematic identification of etiologic agents of infectious diseases. 
Building block approach encourages recall of previously learned information, enhancing your critical and problem solving skills. 
Case in Point feature introduces case studies at the beginning of each chapter. 
Issues to Consider encourages you to analyze and comprehend the case in point. 
Key Terms provide a list of the most important and relevant terms in each chapter. 
Objectives give a measurable outcome to achieve by completing the material. 
Points to Remember summarize and help clearly identify key concepts covered in each chapter. 
Learning assessment questions evaluate how well you have mastered the material. New content addresses bone and joint infections, genital tract infections, and nosocomial infections. 
Significantly updated chapter includes current information on molecular biology and highlights content on multidrug resistant bacteria. 
Reorganized chapters accent the most relevant information about viruses and parasites that are also transmissible to humans. 
Case studies on the Evolve site let you apply the information that you learn to realistic scenarios encountered in the laboratory.
Table of contents : 
Front cover......Page 1
Half title page......Page 2
Title page......Page 4
Copyright page......Page 5
Dedication......Page 6
Reviewers......Page 8
Contributors......Page 10
ORGANIZATION......Page 14
ANCILLARIES FOR INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS......Page 15
Acknowledgments......Page 18
Table of contents......Page 19
PART I: Introduction to Clinical Microbiology......Page 22
OBJECTIVES......Page 23
SIGNIFICANCE......Page 24
OVERVIEW OF THE MICROBIAL WORLD......Page 25
CLASSIFICATION/TAXONOMY......Page 27
COMPARISON OF PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE......Page 28
BACTERIAL MORPHOLOGY......Page 31
MICROBIAL GROWTH AND NUTRITION......Page 33
BACTERIAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM......Page 36
BACTERIAL GENETICS......Page 39
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 43
Key Terms......Page 44
ORIGIN OF MICROBIAL FLORA......Page 45
COMPOSITION OF THE MICROBIAL FLORA AT DIFFERENT BODY SITES......Page 46
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 48
Key Terms......Page 50
MICROBIAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PATHOGENESIS AND VIRULENCE......Page 51
HOST RESISTANCE FACTORS......Page 54
MECHANISMS BY WHICH MICROBES MAY OVERCOME THE HOST DEFENSES......Page 63
ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION......Page 64
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 67
OBJECTIVES......Page 69
GENERAL CONCEPTS IN INFECTION CONTROL PRACTICE......Page 70
OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION......Page 74
EMERGING AND REEMERGING PATHOGENS......Page 79
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 80
OBJECTIVES......Page 82
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE DEGREE OF KILLING......Page 83
METHODS OF DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION......Page 85
DISINFECTANTS AND ANTISEPTICS......Page 87
FDA REGULATIONS ON CHEMICAL SKIN ANTISEPTICS......Page 91
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 93
Key Terms......Page 95
GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY......Page 96
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 111
OBJECTIVES......Page 114
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR ESTABLISHING QUALITY CONTROL......Page 115
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT......Page 121
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 124
ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF TESTS......Page 126
OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS OF TESTS......Page 127
CHOOSING A LABORATORY METHOD......Page 129
TEST VALIDATION......Page 130
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 131
OBJECTIVES......Page 132
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SPECIMEN COLLECTION......Page 133
PRESERVATION, STORAGE, AND TRANSPORT OF SPECIMENS......Page 136
SPECIMEN RECEIPT AND PROCESSING......Page 138
CULTURE WORKUP......Page 143
COMMUNICATION OF LABORATORY FINDINGS......Page 144
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 145
OBJECTIVES......Page 147
PREPARATION OF SAMPLES......Page 148
STAINS......Page 150
MICROSCOPES......Page 151
TERMINOLOGY FOR DIRECT EXAMINATIONS......Page 154
EXAMINATION OF PREPARED MATERIAL......Page 155
GRADING OR CLASSIFYING MATERIALS......Page 158
EXAMPLES OF SAMPLE OBSERVATIONS AND REPORTS......Page 159
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 160
OBJECTIVES......Page 191
INITIAL OBSERVATION AND INTERPRETATION OF CULTURES......Page 192
GROSS COLONY CHARACTERISTICS USED TO DIFFERENTIATE AND PRESUMPTIVELY IDENTIFY MICROORGANISMS......Page 194
GROWTH OF ORGANISMS IN LIQUID MEDIA......Page 198
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 200
OBJECTIVES......Page 203
CARBOHYDRATE UTILIZATION......Page 204
AMINO ACID UTILIZATION......Page 208
MISCELLANEOUS TESTS......Page 210
RAPID AND AUTOMATED IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS......Page 213
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 219
OBJECTIVES......Page 221
Key Terms......Page 222
ANTIBODIES IN SEROLOGIC TESTING......Page 223
ANTIGEN DETECTION......Page 227
PRINCIPLES OF IMMUNOLOGIC ASSAYS......Page 228
USE OF SEROLOGIC TESTING IN SPECIFIC DISEASES......Page 243
DIRECT ANTIGEN DETECTION ASSAYS......Page 247
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 251
OBJECTIVES......Page 253
NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION TECHNIQUES......Page 254
NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES......Page 258
STRAIN TYPING AND IDENTIFICATION......Page 274
THE FUTURE OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS TESTING IN THE CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY......Page 276
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 279
Key Terms......Page 282
ANTIBIOTIC TARGETS AND MECHANISMS OF ACTION......Page 283
MECHANISMS OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE......Page 288
DISSEMINATION......Page 294
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 295
OBJECTIVES......Page 297
Key Terms......Page 298
SELECTING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FOR TESTING AND REPORTING......Page 299
TRADITIONAL ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST METHODS......Page 301
AUTOMATED ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST METHODS......Page 316
INTERPRETATION OF IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST RESULTS......Page 320
METHODS OF DETECTING ANTIMICROBIAL-INACTIVATING ENZYMES......Page 321
QUALITY CONTROL OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTS......Page 322
SELECTING AN ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST METHOD......Page 325
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 326
Key Terms......Page 329
MINIMUM BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATION TEST......Page 330
TIME-KILL ASSAYS......Page 331
SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST......Page 332
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 334
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 0
PART II: Laboratory Identification of Significant Isolates......Page 336
Key Terms......Page 337
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 338
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT SPECIES......Page 339
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 342
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY......Page 347
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 348
OBJECTIVES......Page 351
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 352
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT STREPTOCOCCI AND STREPTOCOCCUS-LIKE ORGANISMS......Page 353
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 365
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 371
OBJECTIVES......Page 373
NON–SPORE-FORMING, NONBRANCHING CATALASE-POSITIVE BACILLI......Page 374
NON–SPORE-FORMING, NONBRANCHING CATALASE-NEGATIVE BACILLI......Page 383
NON–SPORE-FORMING, BRANCHING AEROBIC ACTINOMYCETES......Page 386
SPORE-FORMING, NONBRANCHING CATALASE-POSITIVE BACILLI......Page 390
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 394
OBJECTIVES......Page 397
PATHOGENIC NEISSERIA SPECIES......Page 398
NONPATHOGENIC NEISSERIA SPECIES......Page 410
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 414
OBJECTIVES......Page 416
HAEMOPHILUS......Page 417
HACEK GROUP......Page 424
CAPNOCYTOPHAGA......Page 428
PASTEURELLA......Page 429
BRUCELLA......Page 430
FRANCISELLA......Page 432
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 433
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 436
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE......Page 437
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 438
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY......Page 441
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 442
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 443
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT SPECIES......Page 444
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 445
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 447
OBJECTIVES......Page 448
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 449
OPPORTUNISTIC MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE AND ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS......Page 451
PRIMARY INTESTINAL PATHOGENS OF THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE......Page 461
OTHER GENERA OF THE FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE......Page 467
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE......Page 469
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 481
OBJECTIVES......Page 483
VIBRIO......Page 484
AEROMONAS......Page 491
PLESIOMONAS......Page 495
CAMPYLOBACTER AND CAMPYLOBACTER-LIKE SPECIES......Page 496
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 501
OBJECTIVES......Page 503
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NONFERMENTERS......Page 504
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT NONFERMENTATIVE GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI......Page 507
LESS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED NONFERMENTATIVE GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI......Page 514
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 521
OBJECTIVES......Page 523
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS IN ANAEROBIC BACTERIOLOGY......Page 524
FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED ANAEROBES AND THEIR ASSOCIATED DISEASES......Page 528
SPECIMEN SELECTION, COLLECTION, TRANSPORT, AND PROCESSING......Page 532
PROCEDURES FOR IDENTIFYING ANAEROBIC ISOLATES......Page 539
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING......Page 554
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 557
Key Terms......Page 560
LEPTOSPIRES......Page 561
BORRELIAE......Page 562
TREPONEMES......Page 564
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 567
OBJECTIVES......Page 569
CHLAMYDIACEAE......Page 570
RICKETTSIACEAE AND SIMILAR ORGANISMS......Page 580
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 583
Key Terms......Page 585
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 586
CLINICAL INFECTIONS......Page 588
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 590
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY......Page 593
INTERPRETATION OF LABORATORY RESULTS......Page 594
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 595
OBJECTIVES......Page 596
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 597
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS COMPLEX......Page 598
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA......Page 600
MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE......Page 606
ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE MYCOBACTERIA......Page 607
SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS......Page 621
IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION......Page 622
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 623
OBJECTIVES......Page 624
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS......Page 625
TAXONOMY......Page 627
MYCOSES......Page 628
CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT SPECIES......Page 629
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGI......Page 650
IMMUNODIAGNOSIS OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS......Page 657
ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBITY......Page 658
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 659
OBJECTIVES......Page 660
GENERAL CONCEPTS IN PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY METHODS......Page 661
MEDICALLY IMPORTANT PARASITIC AGENTS......Page 667
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 719
OBJECTIVES......Page 724
CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES......Page 725
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL INFECTIONS......Page 727
DOUBLE-STRANDED DNA VIRUSES......Page 731
SINGLE-STRANDED DNA VIRUSES......Page 738
DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA VIRUSES......Page 739
SINGLE-STRANDED RNA VIRUSES......Page 740
HEPATITIS VIRUSES......Page 752
ANTIVIRAL THERAPY......Page 758
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 759
Key Terms......Page 762
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOTERROR AGENTS......Page 763
THE LABORATORY RESPONSE NETWORK......Page 764
AGENTS OF BIOTERROR......Page 765
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 777
OBJECTIVES......Page 779
MICROBIAL BIOFILMS DEFINED......Page 780
ARCHITECTURE OF BIOFILMS......Page 782
MECHANISMS OF PATHOGENICITY......Page 783
DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH BIOFILMS......Page 785
DETECTION OF BIOFILMS......Page 787
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 788
Part III: Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: An Organ System Approach to Diagnostic Microbiology......Page 790
OBJECTIVES......Page 791
Key Terms......Page 792
BODY SITE INFECTIONS......Page 796
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 823
OBJECTIVES......Page 826
ANATOMY OF THE SKIN......Page 827
LOCALIZED BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL SKIN INFECTIONS......Page 828
DERMATOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL INFECTIONS......Page 838
VIRAL INFECTIONS......Page 842
PARASITIC INFECTIONS......Page 847
IMMUNE- OR TOXIN-MEDIATED DERMATOLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS......Page 850
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 851
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 853
OBJECTIVES......Page 855
ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS......Page 856
A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF THE PATIENT WITH DIARRHEA......Page 857
CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS AND PATHOGENIC MECHANISMS OF ACUTE DIARRHEA......Page 859
COMMON VIRAL, BACTERIAL, AND PARASITIC PATHOGENS......Page 860
DIARRHEA IN SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES......Page 866
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS......Page 869
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DIARRHEA......Page 871
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 872
OBJECTIVES......Page 874
INFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM......Page 875
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS......Page 884
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 886
OBJECTIVES......Page 888
GENERAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO BACTEREMIC INFECTIONS......Page 889
EPIDEMIOLOGY......Page 890
PATHOGENESIS......Page 892
CLINICAL ASPECTS OF BACTEREMIA......Page 893
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 894
TREATMENT......Page 900
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 901
Key Terms......Page 904
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS......Page 906
CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS......Page 908
ETIOLOGY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS......Page 909
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS......Page 912
MICROBIAL DETECTION......Page 915
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS......Page 917
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 919
OBJECTIVES......Page 922
Key Terms......Page 923
URETHRITIS......Page 924
CERVICITIS......Page 927
VULVOVAGINITIS......Page 928
GENITAL ULCER DISEASE......Page 931
OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES......Page 941
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 944
Key Terms......Page 948
MALIGNANCY......Page 949
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION......Page 952
DIABETES......Page 953
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 954
OBJECTIVES......Page 956
Key Terms......Page 957
ZOONOTIC INFECTIONS TRANSMITTED BY SCRATCHES, BITES, AND OTHER CONTACT WITH DOMESTIC OR WILD ANIMALS......Page 958
ZOONOTIC INFECTIONS TRANSMITTED BY DIRECT CONTACT OR INHALATION......Page 962
THE RICKETTSIAE......Page 965
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 967
OBJECTIVES......Page 969
GENERAL CONCEPTS RELATED TO OCULAR INFECTIONS......Page 970
INFECTIONS OF THE CONJUNCTIVAE (CONJUNCTIVITIS)......Page 974
INFECTIONS OF THE LIDS (BLEPHARITIS)......Page 977
INFECTIONS OF THE CORNEA (KERATITIS)......Page 978
INFECTIONS OF THE ORBIT (PRESEPTAL AND ORBITAL CELLULITIS)......Page 982
INFECTIONS OF THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS......Page 983
INFECTIONS OF THE INTRAOCULAR CHAMBERS (ENDOPHTHALMITIS)......Page 984
INFECTIONS OF THE UVEAL TRACT (UVEITIS)......Page 985
INFECTIONS OF THE RETINA (RETINITIS)......Page 986
BIOFILM-CENTERED OCULAR INFECTIONS......Page 987
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF OCULAR INFECTIONS......Page 988
OCULAR THERAPY......Page 994
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 995
BISMUTH SULFITE AGAR......Page 997
BLOOD PHENYLETHYL ALCOHOL AGAR, WADSWORTH......Page 998
CAMPYLOBACTER BLOOD AGAR (CAMPY-BA)......Page 999
CASEIN MEDIUM......Page 1000
COLUMBIA AGAR WITH ANTIBIOTICS......Page 1001
DEOXYRIBONUCLEASE (DNASE) TEST AGAR WITH OR WITHOUT INDICATOR DYE......Page 1002
FLETCHER SEMISOLID MEDIUM FOR LEPTOSPIRA......Page 1003
HYDROGEN SULFIDE, LEAD ACETATE......Page 1004
LOEFFLER COAGULATED SERUM SLANT......Page 1005
MACCONKEY AGAR......Page 1006
METHYL RED–VOGES-PROSKAUER MEDIUM......Page 1007
MOTILITY TEST MEDIUM......Page 1008
OXIDATIVE-FERMENTATIVE MEDIUM (HUGH AND LEIFSON FORMULATION)......Page 1009
PHENYLETHYL ALCOHOL AGAR......Page 1010
SELENITE BROTH......Page 1011
TETRATHIONATE BROTH......Page 1012
TINSDALE AGAR......Page 1013
UREA AGAR AND BROTH......Page 1014
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 1015
APPENDIX B: Selected Mycology Media, Fluids, and Stains......Page 1016
CHAPTER 2......Page 1019
CHAPTER 4......Page 1020
CHAPTER 6......Page 1021
CHAPTER 10......Page 1022
CHAPTER 14......Page 1023
CHAPTER 17......Page 1024
CHAPTER 18......Page 1025
CHAPTER 21......Page 1026
CHAPTER 24......Page 1027
CHAPTER 26......Page 1028
CHAPTER 27......Page 1029
CHAPTER 28......Page 1030
CHAPTER 29......Page 1031
CHAPTER 31......Page 1032
CHAPTER 32......Page 1033
CHAPTER 33......Page 1034
CHAPTER 35......Page 1035
CHAPTER 37......Page 1036
CHAPTER 38......Page 1037
CHAPTER 41......Page 1038
APPENDIX D: Selected Procedures......Page 1039
Glossary......Page 1046
Index......Page 1068



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