Pharmaceutical Microbiology - مدونة كل العرب الطبية

اعلان

الثلاثاء، 17 يناير 2017

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Download this book PDF for Free with lawyers for mesothelioma law firm and insurance you need, تحميل كتاب télécharger le livre

In this work, specific attention has been duly paid to the presentation of each chapter that essentially includes: brief introduction, theoretical aspects, classification, neat and vivid diagramatic illustrations of figures-graphics-equipments, lucid explanations, supportive classical examples, and profusely supplemented with explanatory 'foot notes'-references in addition to further reading bibliography. The text content runs over ten chapters that may prove to be of paramount interest and enormous readability not only confined to the B.Pharm, students but also to various M.Sc., academic curricula in such disciplines as : Food Microbiology, Environmental Science, Microbiology etc. Key features include : concise and exhaustive presentation of scientific informations from several sources; a wealth of theoretical information that opens newer possibilities; detailed classification of various microbial aspects; pharmaceutical assays and methodologies; comprehensive index includes significant terminologies; and, well documented statement of facts. About the Author: Ashutosh Kar is a well-known Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, presently, teaching at Shri RNS College of Pharmacy, Gormi, Bhind (M.P.). He has to his credit twenty-seven years teaching experience at undergraduate and graduate levels both in Indian Universities and abroad. He has published more than twenty research papers based on pharmacological studies on natural and synthetic drugs in international and national scientific journals. He has taught at School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) (2002-2005); Guru Jhambheshwar University, Hisar (India) (1999-2002); Al-Arab Medical University, Benghazi, (Libya) (1997-1998); College of Pharmacy (University of Delhi), Delhi (India) (1990-1994); and, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria) (1976-1987). Professor Kar has an excellent track record in academic institutions of high repute, and actively engaged in teaching, research, administration, and service to his profession. He has to his credit more than fifty research papers, and guided several PG/Ph.D., students in Nigeria, India, and Ethiopia. He has bagged the University Gold Medal in B. Pharm., and M. Pharm., examinations from the University of Saugar, Saugor (M.P.) and completed his Ph.D. He is the life member of several national professional bodies like: APTI, IPGA, and ISTE. Professor Kar has been conferred with 'Lifetime Achievement Award, 2008', by the Indian Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and Technologists, Kolkata for his immerse contribution in the Indian Pharmacy Profession on the 19th January, 2008. Professor Kar has completed nine textbooks, namely: "Medicinal Chemistry (4th/Edition: 2006)"; "Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis (2nd/Edition: 2005)"; "Pharmacognosy and Pharmacobiotechnology (2nd/Edition: 2006)"; "Advanced Practical Medicinal Chemistry (2004)"; "Pharmaceutical Biotechnology [2005 (HB) & 2006 (PB)]"; "Pharmaceutical Microbiology (2006)"; "Pharmaceutical Pharmacology (2009)"; "Pharmaceutical Analysis Volume I (2007)"; and "Pharmaceutical Analysis Volume II (2009)". Besides, Professor Kar's ten year stint of industrial experience in Public Limited Companies as: General Manager (R&D), Production Manager (Food), and Research and Development Officer has inculcated in him a tremendous in-built stimulus of sophisticated research academic laboratories both in the African Continent and top-notch Indian Universities.
Table of contents : 
Preface
......Page 8
Contents
......Page 10
1.1 Introduction
......Page 20
1.2.1 The Microscope
......Page 22
1.2.2 Spontaneous Generation Vs Biogenesis
......Page 23
1.2.4 Germ Theory
......Page 25
1.2.5 Classical Laboratory Methods and Pure Cultures
......Page 26
1.2.6 Immunity
......Page 27
1.2.7 Medical Microbiology
......Page 28
1.2.8 Pharmaceutical Microbiology
......Page 29
1.2.9 Industrial Microbiology
......Page 33
1.2.10 Emergence of Molecular Biology
......Page 34
1.2.11 Emergence of Virology
......Page 36
1.2.13 Microbiology in the New Millennium
......Page 38
2.2.2 Size
......Page 42
2.2.8 Temperature Requirements
......Page 43
2.4 Organization of Microbial Cells
......Page 44
2.4.1 Types of Cells
......Page 45
2.4.1.1 Eukaryotic Cells
......Page 46
2.4.1.2 Prokaryotic Cells 
......Page 52
2.5 Archaeobacteria and Eubacteria
......Page 56
2.5.1 Methanogenic Bacteria (Methanogens) 
......Page 57
2.5.2 Extreme Halophiles
......Page 59
2.5.3.2 Sulfolobus
......Page 60
2.6 The Bacterial Cells
......Page 61
2.6.1 Typical Bacterial Cell
......Page 62
2.6.2 Capsules and Slimes
......Page 63
2.6.3.1 Flagella
......Page 65
2.6.3.2 Fimbriae (or Pili*)
......Page 67
2.6.4 Cell Envelope
......Page 68
2.6.5 Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
......Page 70
2.6.6 Significance of Teichoic Acids
......Page 72
2.6.7 The Cell Membrane
......Page 73
2.6.8 Bacterial Cytoplasm
......Page 74
2.6.9 Ribosomes
......Page 76
2.6.10 Cellular Reserve Materials
......Page 77
3.2 Characterization
......Page 81
3.2.1 Morphological Characteristics
......Page 82
3.2.3 Cultural Characteristics
......Page 83
3.2.5 Antigenic Characteristics
......Page 85
3.2.6.1 DNA Base Composition
......Page 86
3.2.6.2 Sequence of Nucleotide Bases in DNA
......Page 87
3.2.8 Ecological Characteristics
......Page 88
3.3.2 Objectives of Classification
......Page 89
3.3.3.1 Genetic Relatedness
......Page 90
3.3.3.3 Numerical Taxonomy
......Page 91
3.3.4.2 Phyletic* Classification
......Page 94
3.3.4.3 Linnean Binomial Scheme
......Page 95
3.3.4.4 Phenotypic Classification
......Page 96
3.3.4.5 Microscopic Examination
......Page 98
3.3.4.6 Cataloguing rRNA*
......Page 99
3.3.4.7 Computer Aided Classification
......Page 100
3.3.4.8 Bacterial Classification
......Page 101
3.4 Taxonomy
......Page 106
3.5 The Kingdom Prokaryotae
......Page 107
3.5.1.1 General Characteristics
......Page 108
3.5.1.2 Significance of Actinomycetes
......Page 109
3.5.1.3.2 Major Constituents of Cell Wall Types of Actinomycetes
......Page 110
3.5.1.3.4 Actinomycetes with Multiocular** Sporangia***
......Page 111
3.5.1.4.1 Group
......Page 112
3.5.1.4.2 Genus
......Page 113
3.5.1.4.3 Order
......Page 116
3.5.1.4.4 Family
......Page 117
3.5.2 Becteria
......Page 121
3.5.2.1 Salient Features
......Page 122
3.5.2.2.1 Size and Shape
......Page 123
3.5.2.2.2 Structure
......Page 124
3.5.3 Rickettsia and Coxiella
......Page 126
3.5.4 Spirochaetes
......Page 127
4.1 Introduction
......Page 131
4.3 Selective and Diagnostic Media
......Page 132
4.3.2.1 Blood Agar*
......Page 135
4.3.3.1 Triple Sugar Iron Agar [TSI-Agar]
......Page 136
4.4 Cultural Characteristics
......Page 138
4.5.3 Indole Production
......Page 139
4.5.6 Citrate Utilization
......Page 140
4.5.9. Urease Test
......Page 141
4.5.13. Oxidase Reaction
......Page 142
4.5.16. Composite Media
......Page 143
4.6 Profile of Microbial Stains
......Page 146
4.6.1.2. Preparation of Smears for Staining
......Page 147
4.6.1.3. Gram Staining
......Page 148
4.6.1.5. Miscellaneous Staining
......Page 150
4.6.1.5.2. Endospore (Spore) Staining
......Page 151
4.6.2.1 Concepts
......Page 152
4.6.2.2.1. Bright-Field Microscope
......Page 153
4.6.2.2.3. Phase-Contrast Microscope
......Page 155
4.6.2.2.5. Fluorescence Microscope
......Page 158
4.6.2.2.6. Electron Microscope
......Page 160
4.6.2.2.6.1. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
......Page 161
4.6.2.2.6.2. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
......Page 162
5.2.1 Nutrition of Microorganisms (Bacteria)
......Page 165
5.2.2 Cultivation (Growth) of Bacteria
......Page 166
5.2.2.1. Binary Fission
......Page 167
5.2.2.2. Normal Growth Curve of Microorganisms
......Page 168
5.2.2.4. Translational Periods Between Various Growth Phases
......Page 169
5.2.2.5. Synchronous Growth
......Page 170
5.2.2.7. Growth Determining Techniques
......Page 171
5.2.3.2. Bismuth Sulphate Agar
......Page 173
5.3 Actinomycetes
......Page 174
5.4 Fungi
......Page 175
5.4.1.1. Asexual Reproduction
......Page 177
5.4.2.1. Production of Wines and Beer
......Page 178
5.5. Viruses
......Page 179
5.5.1. Bacteriophages
......Page 180
5.5.3. Bacteriophage Lambda : The Lysogenic Cycle
......Page 183
6.1 Introduction
......Page 186
6.2.1. Structure and Function of Genetic Material
......Page 188
6.2.3. Adaptation and Mutation
......Page 189
6.2.4. DNA and Chromosomes
......Page 190
6.2.5. DNA Replication
......Page 191
6.2.6. Rate of DNA Replication
......Page 193
6.2.7. Flow of Genetic Information
......Page 194
6.2.8. Bacterial Transformation
......Page 196
6.2.9. Bacterial Transcription
......Page 199
6.2.10. Bacterial Translation
......Page 201
6.2.11. Bacterial Conjugation
......Page 205
6.2.12. Bacterial Transduction
......Page 207
6.2.12.1 Generalized Transduction
......Page 208
6.2.12.2 Specialized Transduction
......Page 209
6.2.14. Phage Conversion
......Page 211
6.3 Microbial Variations [Genetic Manipulation in Microorganisms]
......Page 212
7.2 Physical Methods
......Page 217
7.2.1. Heat
......Page 218
7.2.2. Moist Heat
......Page 219
7.2.2.2. Autoclaving
......Page 220
7.2.2.3. Pasteurization
......Page 223
7.2.2.5. Filtration
......Page 224
7.2.2.6. Cold
......Page 226
7.2.2.8. Osmotic Pressure
......Page 227
7.2.2.9.1. Ionizing Radiation
......Page 228
7.2.2.9.2. Nonionizing Radiation
......Page 229
7.3.1 Effective Disinfection-Fundamentals
......Page 233
7.3.2.1. Use-Dilution Tests
......Page 234
7.3.3.1. Alcohols
......Page 235
7.3.3.2. Aldehydes
......Page 236
7.3.3.4. Gaseous Chemosterilizers
......Page 237
7.3.3.6. Halogens
......Page 238
7.3.3.7. Organic Acids and Derivatives
......Page 240
7.3.3.8. Oxidizing Agents
......Page 241
7.3.3.9. Phenol and Phenolics
......Page 242
7.3.3.10. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds [QUATS]
......Page 243
7.3.3.11. Surface-Active Agents
......Page 245
7.4.2 Population Composition
......Page 247
7.4.6. Local Environment
......Page 248
8.1. Introduction
......Page 250
8.2.1. Membrane Filtration
......Page 252
8.2.2.1. Nutrient Broth
......Page 258
8.2.2.3. Sabouaud Medium
......Page 259
8.3 Sampling : Probability Profile
......Page 262
8.4 Overall Conclusions
......Page 264
9.1 Introduction
......Page 265
9.1.4. Transferability by Living Cells
......Page 266
9.2.1 Acquired Immunity
......Page 267
9.2.6. Humoral Immunity
......Page 268
9.3. Duality of Immune System
......Page 269
9.4. Immunological Memory
......Page 270
9.5 Natural Resistance and Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
......Page 271
9.5.1.2. Racial Resistance
......Page 272
9.5.1.4. External Defense Mechanisms
......Page 273
9.5.3. Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
......Page 275
9.5.3.1. Complement System
......Page 276
9.5.3.2. Phagocytosis
......Page 278
9.5.3.2.2. Mechanism of Phagocytosis
......Page 279
9.5.3.3. Natural Killer Cells [NK Cells]
......Page 281
9.5.3.4.1. Salient Features
......Page 282
9.5.3.4.3. Interferon Based on Recombinant DNA Technology
......Page 283
9.5.3.4.4. Classical Recombinant Interferons [rIFNs]
......Page 284
10.1. Introduction
......Page 287
10.1.3.2. Turbidimetric (or Tube-Assay) Method (Method-B)
......Page 288
10.2.1. Calibration of Assay
......Page 289
10.2.2. Precision of Assay
......Page 290
10.2.4. Evaluation of Assay Performance
......Page 291
10.3.1.1. One-Dimensional Assay
......Page 292
10.3.1.3. Dynamics of Zone Formation
......Page 293
10.3.1.4. Management and Control of Reproducibility
......Page 294
10.3.1.6.1. Standard Curves
......Page 296
10.3.1.6.2. 2-By-2-Assay
......Page 297
10.3.2.1. Urease Activity
......Page 298
10.3.2.2. Luciferase Assay
......Page 299
10.4 Radiaoenzymatic [Transferase] Assays
......Page 300
10.4.1. Calibration
......Page 301
10.5.1. High Performance Liquid Chromatography [HPLC]
......Page 302
10.5.3. Ion-Pair (or Paired-Ion) Chromatography
......Page 305
10.6.1.1. Standard Preparation and Units of Activity
......Page 306
10.6.1.3. Preparation of Sample Solution
......Page 308
10.6.1.4. Test Organisms
......Page 310
10.6.1.6. Temperature Control
......Page 313
10.6.1.10. Assay Designs
......Page 314
[A] Cylinder-Plate or Cup-Plate Method
......Page 315
A-1.
One-Level Assay With Standard Curve......Page 316
[B] Turbidimetric or Tube Assay Method
......Page 317
10.7.1. Assay of Chlorotetracycline
......Page 319
10.7.3. Assay of Vitamins
......Page 320
10.7.3.1. Calcium Pantothenate
......Page 321
10.7.3.2. Niacin (or Niacinamide)
......Page 323
10.7.3.3. Vitamin B12 [or Cynocobalamin] 
......Page 325
10.7.4. Assay of Amino Acids
......Page 326
Glossary
......Page 327
Index
......Page 361


ليست هناك تعليقات:

إرسال تعليق

Post Bottom Ad